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In 151 BC Carthage raised a large army, the treaty notwithstanding, and counterattacked the Numidians. The Romans were still in their winter quarters. Best Answers. Both legionary sub-units and individual legionaries fought in relatively open order. Many wars start because countries or empires expand until the bump up against one another. [155][207] Both battles ended in complete defeat for the Romans, as Hasdrubal had bribed the Romans' mercenaries to desert. Most of his losses were among his Iberian allies. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. [175][176] Several of the city states in southern Italy allied themselves with Hannibal, or were captured when pro-Carthaginian factions betrayed their defences. It was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. [84][85][86] The invasion initially went well and in 255 BC the Carthaginians sued for peace; the proposed terms were so harsh they fought on. (The word “Punic,” later the name for the series of wars between Carthage and Rome, was derived from the Latin word for Phoenician.) [166] The prisoners were badly treated if they were Romans, but released if they were from one of Rome's Latin allies. [200], In 205 BC, Mago landed in Genua in north-west Italy with the remnants of his Spanish army (see § Iberia below). They carried several javelins, which would be thrown from a distance, a short sword, and a 90-centimetre (3 ft) shield. Why did the second Punic war start? [205], The Roman fleet continued on from Massala in the autumn of 218 BC, landing the army it was transporting in north-east Iberia, where it won support among the local tribes. Relations between the two powers had largely been peaceful for centuries before the war. [22] During this period of Roman expansion Carthage, with its capital in what is now Tunisia, had come to dominate southern Spain, much of the coastal regions of North Africa, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, and the western half of Sicily. This expedition enjoyed considerable early success, but after 14 years the survivors withdrew. The Mamertini appealed to both Rome and Carthage, and the Carthaginians, arriving first, occupied Messana and effected a reconciliation with Hieron. [250] The next morning the Romans systematically worked their way through the residential part of the city, killing everyone they encountered and firing the buildings behind them. The particular bone of contention was Sicily, a strategically important and prosperous island that the Carthaginians had long di… [160] The Romans stationed an army at Arretium and one on the Adriatic coast to block Hannibal's advance into central Italy. These three wars took place between 264 and 146 B.C. This war was the second instalment of the Punic War’s between the Romans and the Carthage Empire and is most well known for the command of the Carthage forces by Hannibal. Books shelved as punic-wars: The Punic Wars by Adrian Goldsworthy, Scipio Africanus: Greater than Napoleon by B.H. [196], Carthage sent more reinforcements to Sicily in 211 BC and went on the offensive. [177][178], However, the majority of Rome's allies remained loyal, including many in southern Italy. [153] A Roman fleet carrying the Iberian-bound army landed at Rome's ally Massalia (modern Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhone,[154] but Hannibal evaded the Romans and they continued to Iberia. [131] These events fuelled resentment of Rome in Carthage, which was not reconciled to Rome's perception of its situation. E. The Punic Wars were fought over a 100. year period, with Romeeventually winning and burningCarthage to the ground. His work was continued by his son-in-law Hasdrubal and his son Hannibal, who was placed at the head of the army in 221. The main cause of the Punic Wars was the conflicts of interest between the existing Carthaginian Empire and the expanding Roman Republic. A Roman war galley with infantry on deck; in the Vatican Museums. The term Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning " Carthaginian ", and is a reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry. The Punic Wars were three wars between the armies of Carthage and Rome. [142] At some time during the next six years Rome made a separate treaty with the city of Saguntum, which was situated well south of the Ebro. Why did Carthage lose to Rome in the Punic Wars? [97] On Sicily the Romans avoided battle in 252 and 251 BC, according to Polybius because they feared the war elephants which the Carthaginians had shipped to the island. [201], After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. [211][213] He released the captured population and liberated the Iberian hostages held there by the Carthaginians to ensure the loyalty of their tribes,[211][213] although many of them were subsequently to fight against the Romans. [46][47] When armies were campaigning, surprise attacks, ambushes and stratagems were common. They fought for the control of the Mediterranean, and Rome's victory was the start of their domination of Europe. [155] The Roman commanders captured Saguntum in 212 BC[207] and in 211 BC hired 20,000 Celtiberian mercenaries to reinforce their army. The Romans certainly took this view and demanded Hannibal’s surrender. [110] Carthage assembled a fleet which attempted to relieve them, but it was destroyed at the Battle of the Aegates Islands in 241 BC,[115][116] forcing the cut-off Carthaginian troops on Sicily to negotiate for peace. [138] This gave Carthage the silver mines, agricultural wealth, manpower, military facilities such as shipyards and territorial depth to stand up to future Roman demands with confidence. The PUNIC WARS! Print; Events. [16] Modern historians usually take into account the writings of various Roman annalists, some contemporary; the Sicilian Greek Diodorus Siculus; the later Roman historians, Livy (who relied heavily on Polybius[17]), Plutarch, Appian (whose account of the Third Punic War is especially valuable[18]) and Dio Cassius. [172], Within a few weeks of Cannae a Roman army of 25,000 was ambushed by Boii Gauls at the Battle of Silva Litana and annihilated. [55] A quinquereme carried a crew of 300: 280 oarsmen and 20 deck crew and officers. [224] The decisive Battle of Zama followed in October 202 BC. 3,200 talents was approximately 82,000 kg (81 long tons). [152] At the Battle of Rhone Crossing, Hannibal defeated a force of local Allobroges which sought to bar his way. [161] Only 10,000 Romans out of 42,000 were able to cut their way to safety. The elephants routed through the Carthaginian infantry, who were then charged by the Roman infantry to complete their defeat. Omissions? [106][107], After more than 20 years of war, both states were financially and demographically exhausted. From this episode it became clear that Rome intended to use the victory to the utmost. [56] It would also normally carry a complement of 40 marines;[57] if battle was thought to be imminent this would be increased to as many as 120. [239][240] The Roman army moved to lay siege to Carthage, but its walls were so strong and its citizen-militia so determined it was unable to make any impact, while the Carthaginians struck back effectively. [122] He campaigned successfully, initially demonstrating leniency in an attempt to woo the rebels over. Approximately 1,200 of the infantry, poorer or younger men unable to afford the armour and equipment of a standard legionary, served as javelin-armed skirmishers, known as velites. [217], In 213 BC Syphax, a powerful Numidian king in North Africa,[207] declared for Rome. [2][12][13] The modern historian Andrew Curry sees Polybius as being "fairly reliable";[14] while Craige Champion describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". [232][243] The Carthaginians continued to resist vigorously: they constructed warships and during the summer twice gave battle to the Roman fleet, losing both times. [8][9][10] He accompanied the Roman general Scipio Aemilianus during his campaign in North Africa which resulted in the Roman victory in the Third Punic War. By its terms Carthage paid 3,200 talents of silver[note 7] in reparations and Sicily was annexed as a Roman province. [93] The Carthaginians attacked and recaptured Akragas in 255 BC, but not believing they could hold the city, they razed and abandoned it. Rome contrived a justification to declare war on Carthage again in 149 BC in the Third Punic War. Hiero II, the old tyrant of Syracuse of forty-five-years standing and a staunch Roman ally, died in 215 BC and his successor Hieronymus was discontented with his situation. [226] The Roman and allied Numidian cavalry drove the Carthaginian cavalry from the field. Due to the fact that Rome and Carthage were not located in Sicily, much of the battle took place through the use of blockades at sea, with little land combat occurring on Sicily.The start of the land combat took place at Messana, where the Romans were able to defeat the Syracusan and Carthaginian soldiers. [11], The accuracy of Polybius's account has been much debated over the past 150 years, but the modern consensus is to accept it largely at face value, and the details of the war in modern sources are largely based on interpretations of Polybius's account. [26][27] According to the classicist Richard Miles, Rome's expansionary attitude after southern Italy came under its control combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to Sicily caused the two powers to stumble into war more by accident than design. A large Roman fleet sailed out in 256, repelled the entire Carthaginian fleet off Cape Ecnomus (near modern Licata) and established a fortified camp on African soil at Clypea (Kélibia in Tunisia). Most of the leadership in Cartha… By a magnificent effort on the part of private citizens a fleet of 200 warships was equipped and sent out to renew the blockade of Lilybaeum. In 263 the Romans advanced with a considerable force into Hieron’s territory and induced him to seek peace and alliance with them. The main source for almost every aspect of the First Punic War is the historian Polybius (c.  200 – c.  118 BC), a Greek sent to Rome in 167 BC as a hostage. [191], A rebellion in support of the Carthaginians broke out on Sardinia in 213 BC, but it was quickly put down by the Romans. They were the largest battles of the time. This victory, by giving the Romans undisputed command of the sea, rendered certain the ultimate fall of the Punic strongholds in Sicily. Mago's arrival in the north of the Italian peninsula was followed by Hannibal's inconclusive Battle of Crotona in 204 BC in the far south of the peninsula. Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 bce), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. [181] Such Italian forces as were raised resisted operating away from their home cities and performed badly when they did. By 214 BC the bulk of southern Italy had turned against Rome. Conflict in Sicily between Rome and Carthage sparks the First Punic War. [38][48] More formal battles were usually preceded by the two armies camping one to seven miles (2–12 km) apart for days or weeks; sometimes forming up in battle order each day. [192], Sicily remained firmly in Roman hands, blocking the ready seaborne reinforcement and resupply of Hannibal from Carthage. A cavalry force of 4,000 from the other Roman army were also engaged and wiped out. [89] The Roman fleet, in turn, was devastated by a storm while returning to Italy, losing most of its ships and more than 100,000 men. By 212 BC the full complement of the legions deployed would have been in excess of 100,000 men, plus, as always, a similar number of allied troops. The Punic Wars were a series of wars between the Carthaginians and the Roman Republic that would catalyze the growth of the Roman territorial holdings as well as shape the ancient world for centuries to come. [225] Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians in infantry. In fact the war is so well known for Hannibal that it is also known as The War Against Hannibal. [115] Henceforth Rome considered itself the leading military power in the western Mediterranean, and increasingly the Mediterranean region as a whole. 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